Biofuel: The Prospect of Developement of Jatropha’s Seed Stove Manufacturing Unit Based on Public-Independent Energy Program in Indonesia

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·         Agriculture Faculty University of Brawijaya

·           Director of “GARLINA” Stove Producer Community – Malang Indonesia

e-mail eko  [email protected]

website : www.ekowidaryanto.lecture.ub.ac.id

ABSTRACT

            This description is based on the invention, which followed by the fabrication of the Jatropha curcas (physicnut)  seed stove that involving small to medium-scale business in fabrication sector of kerosene stove, assisted by Agriculture Faculty University of Brawijaya.

Participation of both mass media and electronic media (private television stations and national television station, for instance TVRI) has been quite supporting the distribution/dissemination of information about the stove of Jatropha’s seed UB – 16 to the public. Besides the greater role of mass media, it can be easily accessed on website : www.komporbijijarak.com.

            Number of the stove sales during 2008 to 2009 has reached 11,126 units, which spread over 25 provinces in Indonesia and this number is expected to be increased in 2010 along with the improved innovation and various kinds of the usable fuels. The greatest absorption of this Jatropha’s seed stove is 90% from the government agencies and the rest is from the public.

The proportional to the needs of the Jatropha curcas to support households, which use the Jatropha  seed stoves, 0.27 – 0.41 kg of seeds/household/day or 99 – 148 kg seeds/household/year).   If the yield of each tree is assumed 2 kg seeds per year, therefore, each household should plant 50 – 75 trees.

Based on assumptions of the national needs in providing biomass energy stoves, however, opportunity to manufacture such stoves, which using Jatropha’s seed, is still wide-open particularly in assisting the government of Indonesia to make the Public-Independent Energy Program successful, typically that based on Jatropha‘s in Indonesia

_________________________________________________________________

 

This paper is presented on the Third Asean Plus Three (China, Japan, and Korea) Forum on Biomass Energy. Suzhou, China. July 12-16, 2011

INTRODUCTION

            The energy crisis has affected the whole countries in the world, including Indonesia. Even though Indonesia has still produced its own fuel, however, this country is considered as one of the petroleum exporters. This is due to the domestic needs for this petroleum is higher than the domestic production. As a result, the domestic-petroleum price is highly depended on the petroleum price in world. Some issues that concerning with the abolition of kerosene subsidy and limitation of the kerosene usage, fluctuation of the exchange value for rupiahs to dollars, and reduced production of the domestic petroleum have disturb the national economy stability. Furthermore, implication of higher price of the petroleum in the world has motivated the government to issue a policy of conversion program of kerosene to LPG. Impact of this policy is quite terrifying at the grass root level. This does not only cause national confusion but also create scarcity of kerosene in the market, and it is automatically make more producers of the kerosene stove having suspended animation. As the domino effect, it becomes a straight threat to disappearance of employment and creates new unemployment.

            Access to the available and continuous energy, in this case the Jatropha’s plant, has positive effect to the social life aspect. Blue Print of the National Energy Management issued by the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources has set that the national needs for energy will be fulfilled by Renewed-New Energy source of 4.4 percent (Yusgiantoro, 2008). In relation to the policy, the Presidential Instruction No. 1 in 2006 has been issued concerning with Providing and Utilizing the Biofuel.

            Some efforts to develop alternative energy resources that hospitable to environment, sustainable, and renewable, should be made. The Jatropha’s  seed is the renewed-alternative energy that meets the requirements and it is quite promising. The Jatropha’s plant is not only easily to be planted on any medium, but also the production system and the planting can be done by anyone.

            The villagers are used to utilize the Jatropha’s seed for illumination before electricity program entering their villages. In general, the Jatropha’s seed oil is utilized after squeezed. The Jatropha’s seed contains oil deposits for about 37 %. The oil, which derived from the Jatropha’s seed squeezing can be directly burnt without having a refinery process (Heller, 1996).

            Result of the testing showed that the usage of dried Jatropha’s seed on the modified stove will generate flame as good as the kerosene stove’s. Therefore, the Jatropha’s seed stove is a practical, simple, and economical stove.

            Result of the observation showed that by using 200 gram of kernel, the flame will be lasted for 60 minutes (Note : 1 kg of the dried Jatropha’s seed contained 0.625 kg of kernel) costs Rp 1000,00, therefore, Rp 1,600,00 will generate flame for almost 5 hours or approximately it can be used for two days on the average (0.8 kg dried seed/day/family (household)). Therefore, the usage of this Jatropha’s seed stove is very economical for about a quarter in comparison with the kerosene stove (Widaryanto, 2008).

            The potential cultivation land for the Jatropha curcas’s growth in Indonesia is about 4.39 ha, including dry land cultivation (unirrigated and dry agricultural field), which reach 10.59 million ha, and 5.55 million ha (yard/home garden) areas where this Jatropha curcas can be planted (Mulyani et al., 2006).

            It is assumed that if 2% of the Jatropha curcas’s yields, which are taken from the yard and hedge, are completely used for household needs, the yields will reach 412,500 tons in a year (under assumption that the Jatropha cultivation per hectare will produce 3.75 – 5 tons of seeds in a year, with the population of 2500 plants/ha under assumption that the yield is 1.5 -2 kg/plant).

            If the yield distributed to households evenly, in which 288 kg/household/year, it will support 1,432,291 million households which using the Jatropha’s seed stoves. Based on the calculation, the Jatropha’s seed stoves production is quite promising and has brighter prospect to be developed in the future.

Besides greater opportunities, seen from business point of view, these efforts will assist the government to make the Public-Independent Energy Program successful, typically that based on Jatropha‘s seed, which has been proclaimed since 2006. Moreover, it has reduced the government’s burden in subsidizing the community with kerosene.  

BENEFITS OF THE JATROPHA’S SEED STOVE DEVELOPMENT

BASED ON THE NATIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

            The increasing needs for energy has drained the reserves of the petroleum resources. It does not only trigger the rising price of the petroleum in the world, and distresses the community at the lower level, but also has greater impact to the environmental damage due to the waste gas as a result of the petroleum burning. Such waste will pollute and reduce the air quality, as well as cause global warming effect. In order to overcome the problem, an innovation should be created by utilizing alternative energy, which is more hospitable to environment, economic, and applicable for the lower community. Jatropha curcas is one of the alternative energy sources that can be easily found in villages, which not only grew wildly, but also cultivated on purpose. However, the use of this castor oil is considered less suitable for villages due to the production required an extraction/ pressing process. Therefore, the innovative technology of the Jatropha’s seed stoves UB-16 is the most effective and efficient step to assist the villagers in overcoming the energy problem. Development of such stove production unit will bring about more benefits for the country, such as:

  • Fulfilling a part of the energy needs, particularly the use of suitable stove by the villagers, in which considered economic, qualified, and simple.
  • Utilizing natural resources potency in Indonesia, especially jatropha’s in order to fulfill the energy needs.
  • Improving the socio-economic capability and reducing toward global energy crisis through efficient energy usage.
  • Opening the employment in order to improve the national economy level.
  • Reducing environmental damages and global glasshouse effects by using lower pollutant biofuel.
  • Assisting the government in reducing petroleum subsidy, particularly kerosene.

THE PROPERNESS OF THE JATROPHA CURCAS’S SEED STOVE USE

FOR HOUSEHOLD SCALE

            Utilization of the Jatropha’s seed kernel as fuel has created new opportunity for the producers of kerosene stove who started to go out of their business due to the issuance of the government’s policy concerning with conversion program of kerosene to LPG.

Result of the simple research showed that this Jatropha’s seed stove has high properness value as household energy.

During the research of the properness test on this Jatropha‘s seed stove, 200 g kernel (seed without shell) of the Jatropha’s for this stove has generated optimum heat (flame) for about 1 hour (60 minutes). In order to boil 1.5 liter of water (H2O) to the boiling point (100oC), it takes 8 minutes. It means that to boil 1.5 liter of water, we need the Jatropha’s seed (200 g / 60 min) x 8 min = 26.67 g per 1.47 kg of water or 18.14 g kernels per kg of water.

The result properness of this research will be evaluated using physics law that related to heat Q = mcDT, in which the required quantity of heat Q (Joule) is straightly proportional to the increased temperature DT (oK) of a material that having mass m (kg) and specific heat capacity c (J.kg-1.oK). By using this equation, the required Jatropha’s seed mass (kg) can be counted if the specific heat capacity has been known. As description, the specific heat capacity of water is 4190 J.kg-1.oK, the required energy to rise the temperature of 1 kg of water to be 100oC with the initial temperature of 25oC is as follows :

Q = [(1 kg) x (4190 J.kg-1.oK) x (100-25)oK] J

Q = 341250 J = 0.314250 MJ

The energy content of the Jatropha’s seed is about 20 MJ.kg-1, and 30 MJ.kg-1 for the seed with the shell and without shell (kernels), respectively (Table 1). By this information, the required weight (W) to generate 0.314250 MJ (Q) heat or to rise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 25oC to 100oC is as follows :

W = [Qwater / cJatropha curcas]

W = [0.314250 MJ / 30 MJ.kg-1]

W = 0.010475 kg = 10.475 g kernel, or parallel to 15.7 g of the Jatropha’s seed with the shell whenever the total heat energy of the kernels or seed is completely used.

Table 1.  Composirtion and energy content of Jatropha curcas components (Jongschaap et al.,   2007)

Components

Composition (%)

Energy

Ash

Water

(MJ.kg-1)

Wood

1

15

15.5

Fruit

6

8

21.2

Coat Seed

13

15

11.1

Seed

3.5 – 5

3.7 – 5

20.8 – 25.5

Seed Shell

4 – 5

10 – 11

16.9 – 19.4

Kernel

2.6 – 4.3

2.2 – 11.3

29.8 – 31.6

Oil

< 0.1

0

30.1 – 45.8

Seed cake

4

3

25.1

 

In practices, the resulted heat through burning is not used completely to heat up the water, but a part is used to heat up the water container and the surroundings. Comparison between the required quantity of the seeds (10,475 g), theoretically and the usable quantity of the seeds (18,141 g) reflects the efficient use of the heat energy, 10,475/18,141 = 0.58 = 58%. It means that only 58% of the energy is effective to rise the temperature.

If the energy for a family that comprise of four members is roughly parallel with the energy to boil 10 – 15 kg of water, it means that (10 – 15) x 0.314250 = 3.14250 – 4.7138 MJ = 1147.01 – 1720.52 MJ per year (1 year = 365 days). This energy will be fulfilled by 98.88 – 148.32 kg of kernels per year.

If the Jatropha curcas cultivation could produce 4000 kg per ha per year with the population of 2000 plants, therefore, the resulted energy will be : 4000 kg x 20 MJ per kg x 0.58 = 46400 MJ per year. It is adequate to fulfill 27 – 40 families for a year. This is proportional to the needs of the Jatropha curcas to support households, which use the Jatropha  seed stoves, 0.27 – 0.41 kg of kernels/family/day or 99 – 148 kg kernels/household/year).

If the yield of each tree is assumed 2 kg seeds per year, therefore, each household should plant 50 – 75 trees.

 

SPECIFICATION OF THE PRODUCT

Dimension of the stove is length x width x height (27 x 27 x 27 cm), that includes the main body frame, stoom, outer muffler, inner muffler, heat regulator, bed plate, and ashes tank. Maximum capacity of the seed tank is 300 g. The plate material is 0.6 mm thick. The outer surface is painted in silver, red, and blue. The stove endurance is more and less than 2 years and it needs further review. Capability to generate flame is 200 g of the peeled-seed/briquette, which lasts for 60 minutes (water content of the seed + 7%). The flame endurance depends on the oil content of the seed (the higher the longer). 80% of the flame is blue.

Figure 1.   The Jatropha’s Seed Stove UB-16

Directions of Usage

1.        Assemble all components in precision.

2.        Peel off the sun-dried seed + 7% / prepare the briquette made of biofuel.

3.        Put the peeled seed / briquette into the stove through the top mouth for about 300 g in maximum (it should not more than this amount because it will disturb the air flow).

4.        Light up the stove by mixing a bit of triggering substance (pounded seeds of the Jatropha curcas till they produce the crude jatropha oil) and pour a little methylated spirit into the pounded seed and put them onto the Jatropha’s seeds in the stove, and then light up the fire.

5.        In order to use the stove perfectly, wait for about 3 minutes till the fire burnt evenly and the flame turn into blue.

6.        Numbers of seeds / briquette should be adjusted to the needs (for instance, it takes 8 minutes to boil 1500 ml of water, and it requires 100 g of the Jatropha curcas’ seed to light up the stove for 30 minutes).

7.        When the flame started to diminish, add more seeds into the stove as required (when use the seeds).

8.        The flame can be turn down and turn up using the lever (regulator) on the bottom bed of the stove.

9.        For the next usage, clean up the ashes first by scraping them, so that they will fall down into the ashes tank, in which the lever (regulator) is in open position (to the right side).

10.     In order to turn off the fire, move the lever (regulator) to the left side and blow out the fire as is the kerosene stove.      

THE NEWEST INNOVATION

Much complaints from users of the Jatropha’s seed stoves of UB-16, which previously used the Jatropha’s seeds, have motivated the manufacturer to create the newest innovation by improving the previous ones, UB-16, to be UB-16 S.

During the improvement, this innovative stove has been developed into biofuel-multipurpose stove, which does not only use the Jatropha’s seeds, but also other biofuels, such as copra, kapok’s (silk-cotton tree) seeds, Calophyllum inophyllum, Elaeis guineensis Jack. (Palm family), and etc. In fact, this product was introduced before the Judgment Committee of the President in Jakarta on March 25th, 2009 during the Limited Discussion on Opportunity of the Alternative Energy.

This Multipurpose Stove of UB-16 S is the improvement of the previous product of UB-16, without modifying the air circulation system within the stove. The muffler part of this stove is divided into 2 (two) parts, the fuel tank and the top part that comprises of central and inner mufflers, and stoom, which are combined into an integral unit.

Due to this stove comprises of fuel tank, which is separated from the muffler parts, therefore, the size of usable biofuel must be bigger than the Jatropha’s seed : such as, unprocessed palm oil fruit, Calophyllum inophyllum, Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd., kapok’s (silk-cotton tree) seeds or briquettes made of biofuel that contain much oil.

Figure 2.   The Jatropha’s Seed Stove UB-16 S

Directions of Usage :

1.        Remove the top part of the muffler (using the available lever).

2.        Take the fuel tank out of the stove, then fill it with the available fuel as much as required, and put it back into the former position at the stove, then put down the top part of the muffler through the mouth of the fuel tank in precision.

3.        To light up the stove, put in the triggering material from the top of the stove mouth by mixing two spoonfuls of pounded-peeled seeds and methylated spirit, then light up the fire (it will be perfect if the lighting up is performed from the top of the stove mouth, because it will accelerate the heat spreading system from the muffler to the stove mouth).

4.        Use the available lever to turn down and turn up the fire.

5.        The fuel can be inserted directly by pouring the fuel from the top of the stove mouth (size of the fuel is as big as the Jatropha’s seeds), while for briquette in capsule form or having bigger size than the Jatropha’s seed, they can be inserted as mentioned in point 1 and 2 above).

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

The initial production capacity is adjusted to the market demand, which has been pioneered at the East Java and Central Borneo regions. The initial order has reached 3535 units and got increasing in the second year, which reached 7,591 units. This numbers are assumed to be increased according to the targeted year, for about 15,000 units in the third year. This amount is just assumed to fulfill a small part (+ 0.01%) of the total assumption that concerning with the needs of biofuel stoves in Indonesia, particularly which based on the Jatropha curcas’s seed. When the demand for such stoves is stable, capacity of the production will be increased gradually in the next future, as well as the quantity and quality of the products, and new appearance in order to meet the consumer’s demand in Indonesia.

CONCLUSIONS

1.    The Jatropha’s seed stove of UB-16 is effective solution, which utilizing the yield of the Jatropha’s seeds, as programmed by the government with the issues of the Presidential Instruction No. 1 no 2006 that has been abandoned for the past few years.

2.    Positive responses of the related Departments, concerning with the invention of the Jatropha’s seed stove of UB-16, prove that such stove is included in the National Budget (Regional Budget I, Regional Budget II, and National Budget).

3.    During the production for two years (2008 and 2009), the products have reached 11126 units and spread over 25 provinces in Indonesia, and it is estimated that the numbers will be increased in 2010 along with the innovative improvement of the previous product, in this case is UB-16 S that can be applied using various kinds of fuel.

4.    The needs of the Jatropha curcas to support households, which use the Jatropha  seed stoves, 0.27 – 0.41 kg of seeds/household/day or 99 – 148 kg seeds/household/year.   If the yield of each tree is assumed 2 kg seeds per year, therefore, each household should plant  50-75trees.

5.    Based on assumption of the national needs in providing biomass energy stoves, there are wide opportunity to develop such stoves, particularly in supporting the Indonesian government to make the Public-Independent Energy Program successful, typically that based on Jatropha curcas.  

 

 

REFERENCES

Heller, J., 1996.  Physic nut, Jatropha curcas L, Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops, 1, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome

Jongschaap, R.E.E., Corre, W.J., Bindraban, P.S. and  W.A. Brandenburg.  2007.  Claims and Facts on Jatropha curcas L., Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, Stichting Het Groene Woudt, Laren

Mulyani, A., F. Agus dan D. Allelorung. 2006.  Potensi Sumberdaya Lahan untuk Pengembangan Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas) di Indonesia.  J. Litbang Pertanian. 25 (4) : 130-138

Widaryanto, E. 2008.  Kompor Biji Jarak Pagar UB-16 Untuk Rumah Tangga. Info Tek Jarak Pagar. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Badan Litbang 3 (3) : 9-12.

Wirawan, S.S., 2005.  Prospek tanaman pertanian sebagai bioenergi BBM masa depan.  Prosiding Seminar Nasional, Perhimpunan Agronomi Indonesia, Malang 27-28 September 2005. 21-30

Yusgiantoro, P. 2008. Pengembangan Energi Alternatif Menyikapi Kenaikan Harga Minyak Dunia. Makalah disampaikan pada : Seminar Nasional Energi Alternatif, di Politeknik Negeri Malang, Selasa 16 Pebruari 2008. : 10 hal.

 

Table 2. Comparison of the Cost and Flame Duration of Various Fuels 

No

Fuels

Price

(Rp.kg-1)

Flame Duration (hour)

Cost

(Rp.hour-1)

1

Jatropha”s (kernel)

1,600

5

320

2

Palm oil fruit (dry)

1,500

5

300

3

Kapok seed (briquette)

1,200

4

300

4

Copra

2,750

6

458

5

Kerosene

7.500

4

1875

Note : 1 $ = Rp 9,100,-

 

Table 3.  Distribution of Jatropha Seed Stove UB-16  on 2008 dan 2009

No

Provinces

Number

1

 North Sumatra

108

2

Jambi

40

3

South Sumatra

614

4

Lampung

121

5

Riau

4

6

DKI Jakarta

294

7

West Java

14

8

Banten

40

9

Central Java

1338

10

Yogyakarta

480

11

East Java

5124

12

South Kalimantan

76

13

Central Kalimantan

194

14

East Kalimantan

10

15

West Kalimantan

216

16

South Sulawesi

234

17

South East Sulawesi

120

18

Central Sulawesi

321

19

North Sulawesi

52

20

Gorontalo

74

21

North Maluku

166

22

Bali

212

23

West Nusa Tenggara

220

24

East Nusa Tenggara

662

25

Papua

392

 

Total

11126

Eko Widaryanto

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